Is the danger related to fine or nanoparticles from a filament 3D printer real ? If I leave my window open, am I safe ? Yes, but the outdoor air may be polluted, especially if I live in the city, so what about my health ?


First of all, let’s start with a small definition. What are fine particles called ?
A cloud of particles that we can’t see, does not mean that the air is healthy. Regarding fine particle pollution, they are smaller than a micrometer in size. In the field of air quality, these particles are studied using the PM (Particulate Matter) classification.

PM 10 – particles less than 10 micrometers
PM 2.5 – particles less than 2.5 micrometers
For comparison, the diameter of a hair is between 50 and 100 micrometers.

When do we talk about 3D printer nanoparticles ?

Less than 0.1 micrometer (or 100 nanometers) the term nanoparticle is used. The term Ultrafine Particles (UFPs) is also used to refer to these nanomaterials. They have a size between that of an atom and a cell. Of course, a 105 nm particle will also be a nanoparticle, it is an order of magnitude.

Small reminder: 1 micrometer = 1000 nanometers.
So, a PM 2.5 corresponds to a 2500 nm particle.
They are widely used in the cosmetic and food industries. For example, you may know the E171 in the ingredient list ? These are titanium dioxide nanoparticles used for whiteness: toothpaste, chewing gum, sunscreen, candies…

Fine particles and health risks ?

Risk = danger X exposure

Exposure refers to the amount of particles in a volume that can be inhaled and is measurable. By using a filtration system, exposure can be limited. However, the danger of nanoparticles is still not fully understood and refers to the impact on health from a specific particle.

illustration d'une imprimante 3D eméttant des pollutions

Regarding PM10 and PM2.5 fine particles, their negative effects on health are well known. Increased risk of cardiovascular disease, impaired lung function, and carcinogenic effects have been shown. In general, they reduce life expectancy.

The specific risk of nanoparticles

They are well present, but the extent of the problem is still not well known today for all nanomaterials.
However, there is a small problem with measuring air pollution.
Current legislation proposes a framework for emissions for particles at best PM2.5, particularly during periods of peak atmospheric pollution. And in this context, the mass of fine particles in suspension is measured in micrograms per cubic meter.

However, the 3D printer nanoparticles emitted are 10 to 100 times smaller. For an equal mass of material, they will be much more numerous. This decrease in size and increase in number will optimize their toxicity potential. Yet they will not be accounted for.

The fineness of these particles will allow them to be lodged deeply in the human body, reaching the lungs, blood, internal organs, and brain.

Thus, for the same material, the physico-chemical properties are very different between a nanoparticle and a fine particle.

A material that is harmless at “normal” size may not necessarily be harmless at “nano” size. Therefore, all toxicological studies must be redone when materials are in the form of nanoparticles.

The Cancer Research Center indicates that “the biopersistence of nanomaterials raises fears of chronic toxicity, or even the development of cancers with the combination of genotoxicity and chronic inflammation.”

Not very reassuring to hear, but it is better to be aware to better anticipate. The study “Nanomaterials and nanoparticles: Sources and toxicity” illustrates the potential effects of nanoparticles at all levels of the human body.

les dangers des nanoparticules sur le corps humain

Harmful emissions in 3D printing

3D printers emit particles of different sizes and types depending on the filament and its extrusion temperature. It is during the extrusion of plastic that particles are released in large quantities.

An increased extrusion temperature will emit more particles. Therefore, thermosplastics based on petrochemical products like ABS emit more particles than those made from natural organic compounds like PLA.

émission nanoparticules abs pla

In 2013, the Illinois Institute of Technology measured the proportion of 3D printer nanoparticles. There are 20 to 100 times more nanoparticles from 10 to 116nm (gray squares) than particles beyond 116nm (violet triangles).

The nanoparticles are not only more numerous but also lighter. The larger particles are also heavier. The filtration mechanisms will be different depending on the size and mass of the particles.

This graph provides more information about particle emissions. It shows that the air already contains nano and micro particles before any use of 3D printers. It also reveals:

  • Printing with PLA did not release particles larger than 116 nm
  • In 20 minutes, 2 PLA printers increased the concentration of nanoparticles by 5 times
  • The concentration of nanoparticles seems to increase much more quickly in the presence of ABS
  • The rate of nanoparticles decreases slowly after printing has ended

What filter for nanoparticles?

There are filters specifically designed to treat fine particles. In the industry, we find different standards for particle filtration.

We have identified the EN1822 standard. It defines the efficiency of particle filters by counting the filtered particles.

  • EPA/HEPA – High Efficiency Filters
  • ULPA – Low Penetration Filters

This standard is perfectly suited to the context of 3D printing environment filtration and resembles work in clean rooms (laboratory, electronics…).
When it comes to protection, it is common to consider the worst-case scenario.

In the EN1822 standard, a filter is defined for the highest penetration particle size efficiency (MPPS), meaning the particle that will best pass through the filter. And it’s not necessarily the smallest one.

The filter is not just a simple sieve with holes where all objects bigger than the holes are captured.

There is an efficiency profile for each HEPA filter based on the size of the particles.

efficacité d'un filtre H13
In the filter performance curve, you will notice that the lowest point of filtration is not for the finest particle 10nm (0.01 micrometer). The most penetrating MPPS particle is around 300 nanometers, the lowest efficiency will be 99.95%. For particles above the MPPS, the efficiency is absolute. Below the MPPS, efficiency approaches 100%.

For example, a HEPA13 filter will capture at least 9995 out of 10,000 particles of a size of 0.3 micrometers, while a HEPA14 will capture 9999 out of 10,000.

Very High Efficiency filters with this profile can therefore effectively capture nanoparticles starting from 10nm emitted by 3D printing with very high efficiency.

Filter nano and micro particles

It’s a matter of mass. We’re talking about particles that are so small that gravity or inertia doesn’t have the same impact. Four filtration mechanisms come into play.


Ultra-fine particles smaller than 0.5 micrometers are so light that they vibrate with the material without perfectly following the air flow (Brownian motion).
hepa HEPA filter nanoparticules


Interception occurs between 0.5 and 1 micrometer.

filtration inertial


Beyond 1 micron
tamisage mécanisme filtration HEPA


For larger particles

Thus, it is primarily the diffusion mechanism that will allow nanoparticles to be retained in the filter fibers.

Choosing the Alveo3D Filter?

You probably understand by now that the perfect filtration system for 3D printer nanoparticles does not exist.

But we want to offer the most effective solution possible. The main work in selecting the type of filter is to find the right balance between 3 variables:  Efficiency / Air resistance / Cost

3 Filtres de test différente haute efficacité

We mentioned the efficiency of the HEPA filter and it is naturally towards this type of material that we turned. The choice to use certified filters that meet the EN1822 standard to ensure real efficiency on fine particles naturally imposed itself.

The filters are tested for their overall efficiency (average performance of the entire filter) and for their local efficiency (performance at different points on the filter surface, except for HEPA filters). We quickly determined that we wanted to use a minimum of a HEPA13 filter to ensure very high efficiency with regard to nanoparticles.

HEPA filters were set aside due to their limited performance and the lack of local value testing. According to CNRS recommendations, HEPA filters are designated to provide effective protection during 3D printing.

So HEPA 13, HEPA 14 or ULPA 15 ?

The Alveo3D team tested all 3 filter types. To choose the right filter, it is necessary to know or test the pressure drop it will generate, i.e. its air resistance. Then, the ventilation system can be calibrated based on this resistance.
Test de pression avec un filtre P3D
So ULPA filters quickly showed very high resistance. We can not make a compact and relatively quiet ventilation system for 3D printing with this type of filter. We now know why they are called “low penetration filters”. They are also more expensive.

Thus, the decision would come down to between the HEPA 13 and HEPA 14 filters.
A HEPA filter can be made with pleats to increase the filter surface area. A larger filter surface area reduces air resistance and increases the filter’s lifespan.

We experimented with around 20 prototypes, altering the thickness of the filters and using different filter materials such as glass fiber, polyester fibers, and charcoal-infused fibers.

Pyramide de filtres de tests pour alveo3D

Our goal was to allow the filtration of 3D printer nanoparticles from a 60x60x60cm cabinet in 30 seconds, a flow rate of 26m3/h. This flow rate must be achieved in a compact format with dimensions of a 120mm fan to fit the most number of cases. And finally, not to exceed the air flow rate through the filter in order not to damage its performance.

With these characteristics, the HEPA13 filter was revealed to be the best compromise: 50dB in the cabinet on average between the AlveoONE filtration kit in the free-standing version or panel mounting. The cost is reasonable. We can therefore offer the most affordable universal filtration kit on the market with very good efficiency and good life.

Avec ces caractéristiques, c’est le filtre HEPA13 qui s’est révélé le meilleur compromis : 50dB dans le caisson en moyenne entre le kit de filtration alveoONE en version pose libre ou montage en panneau. Le coût est raisonnable. Nous pouvons ainsi proposer le kit de filtration universel le plus abordable du marché avec une très bonne efficacité et une bonne durée de vie.

Final words :

It would be possible to use HEPA 14, but the noise generated by the fan is not pleasant at all with the current concept. Nevertheless, we have a great opportunity for development with a future HEPA 14 filtration kit. Our challenge will be to maintain a reasonable noise level while increasing filtration performance.

You will find 3D printer particle filtration systems based on respiratory mask filter cartridges.

In these cartridges, particle filtration is performed by a P3 filter that meets the EN14387 standard. The filtration efficiency of these filters is similar to the HEPA 13 filter, but they are optimized for human breathing. They are designed to handle smaller volumes of air and resist humidity (which is not useful in 3D printing). They are presented in the form of small, non-pleated surfaces. This configuration presents a high resistance to air and a smaller filtration surface.

Therefore, we prefer to use HEPA filters that provide a more relevant response to 3D printer nanoparticle emissions and the possibility of evolving to higher filtration levels.
3D printers also emit harmful gases called Volatile Organic Compounds COV. We will publish an article on this topic soon. Find some interesting information in the CNRS publications.

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Article written by:

CEO d'alveo3d


CEO at Alveo3D